Electronic Government: Design, Applications and Management
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ScienTI Network in Numbers www. The next step is to make this information connected by means of web services and provide services on a multi-national level. One of the new possibilities brought by ScienTI Network is to provide scientometric methods with new data, standardized an coming from several countries. The following is a comparison between the gender distribution in both countries regarding researchers in health. There is a hidden phenomena of the unbalanced interest in Brazil by women.
There is a similar behavior indicating that the great majority remains connected to their education area either acting or publishing in health In we developed and launched the Innovation Portal. How to make such competences available to firms for contact and collaboration? Main Issues in Building such a Portal 1. Systems and resources accessed via Web E-Governmental Architecture The Portal has private environments for each innovation player.
Firms can access their own data profile, demands and technological offers , can search and save bookmark competences from experts, research groups and other firms, and can also use the cooperation environment to send or receive messages to experts or other firms. Finding Experts How to make the national competences available to firms for contact and collaboration?
Searching for Competences — search alternatives Searching competences. The search results present the experts classified by the match between profile and search interest and the 10 terms more frequent on those curricula. Searching for Competences — Knowledge Distribution Searching competences. The user can also specialize its search according to education level, region or knowledge field of the experts.
Electronic Government: Design, Applications and Management
Search for Opportunities A New Set of Scientometric Indicators?? Since the platform is updated on daily basis, it is easy to make the secondary sources data marts present distributions of experts, firms or research group by country region or state. The same approach can be further specialized up to highly detailed analyses considering, for instance, experts profile or historic distributions. New parameters of decision. Features such as bookmarking brings a hidden interest factor not available before e.
Another aspect that has been considered is what would be the effect of having these bookmarks available at the funding decision making process e. Access to the National Portals Bookmarked experts Favorites in searches for competences Competitive intelligence. Another example is the knowledge of what and where former workers are working. Such information is available at the private level of Innovation Portal i. Web presence, networking and flexible information combination based on OLAP analysis bring a new set of opportunities to Scientometrics. Careful with the Passion for Technology You just clipped your first slide!
The e-government portal egov. Armenian e-government was established in E-government brings together all tools and databases created by Armenian state agencies and provides a user-friendly online environment for users. It includes more than twenty services and tools. Under this initiative, "Interactive Budget"  and "State Non-Commercial Organisations' Financing"  sections are available for the first time. There are also twenty other tools, including search engines, allowing to find the Government's and the Prime Minister's decisions, the agenda of the next cabinet sitting, information on the state purchases, the electronic tax reporting system, the online application system of the Intellectual Property Agency, the information search system of the Intellectual Property Agency, as well as the Electronic Signature and Electronic Visa e-visa sections.
It is worth mentioning that the Electronic Signature is used in several other services when a user wants to submit an application or receive information. The Electronic Signature is universal system and is used both by the state officials and by citizens, legal entities. This system allows companies to submit an application for obtaining or terminating licenses regarding various activities pharmaceuticals, banking, construction, transport etc.
It also provides other services in respect of already obtained license. The Report Acceptance System for licensed persons enables to submit any report annually, monthly or quarterly on licensed activities. Electronic Payment System effectively processes online payments. This application is designed specifically for charging the state fees, local fees, the administrative penalties or services provided by state and local governmental bodies. The system enables to submit an application to the property cadastre and receives information on landowners, the surface of a plot of land, legal status of any property.
The state electronic payment system is integrated into this tool. Online applications for registration of rights and restrictions and related documents may be submitted by users who have a digital signature.
It is designed particularly for publication any draft initiated by the Government or Member of Parliaments. The website enables them to search legal drafts, follow their further progress, and become familiar with the presented suggestions. The registered users can present suggestions, get informed with the "summary paper" of the suggestions to the draft, the adopted suggestions or the reasoning concerning the not adopted ones.
The system enables registration of legal entities, such as limited liability companies, joint-stock companies, foundations, and self-employed entrepreneurs. On average it takes twenty minutes to register a company depending on the entity's type. State fee can be paid through E-Payments system. The system also allows users to track the submitted applications and search existing companies as well as purchase full information about any company, including information about shareholders.
This system allows users to find cases, search for laws of Armenia, as well as to follow the schedule of court hearings. The system is designed for public announcements. The state authorities are obliged to make public announcements under certain circumstances stipulated by law.
This tool simplifies the tax declaration process for both taxpayers and tax authorities. Any natural person or legal entity can submit tax declaration verifying it by electronic signature. Online submission of patent and trademark applications using electronic signature. Visas are issued within two days. The system allows users to verify the identity of the user and protect the submitted application. Any resident of Armenia, either a natural person or legal entity, can obtain an electronic signature and use it while applying E-Government systems.
Estonia has established its e-government program with the support of the European Union since with the introduction of e-Banking. Estonia conducts legally binding i-Voting at national and local elections and offers e-Residency to foreigners. The academy has trained over 4, officials from more than 60 countries and led or participated in more than 60 international ICT projects on the national, local and organizational levels.
Estonia is widely recognized as e-Estonia , as a reference to its tech-savvy government and society. On the Federal Law "On providing state and municipal services" , the strategy on development of Information Society in the Russian Federation, approved by the President , the Federal target programme "Electronic Russia" — years , approved by the Government , the State Programme "Information Society" , the Procedure on development and approval of administrative regulations execution of public functions public services , approved by the Government , the concept of administrative reform in the Russian Federation in - respectively, approved by the Government , on other orders, resolutions and acts in the Russian Federation was created electronic government or e-government.
The main target on creating e-government lies in the field of providing equal opportunities for all the Russians in spite of their living place and their incomes and make a more effective system of public administration. So e-government is created for reaching the useful system of public management accommodating the individual interests of every citizen by participation through ICTs in public policy-making.
Nowadays Russian e-government includes such systems as: . The United interagency Interacting system using for providing of state and municipal services, exchange of information and data between participants of interagency interacting, quick approval of state and municipal decisions, etc. The United system for authentication and authorization providing evidence of the rights of all participants of e-government.
United portal of state and municipal services and functions which are the "single window" for all information and services assured by government and municipals. The portal of public services is one of the key elements of the project to create an "electronic government" in the country. The portal provides a single point of access to all references on state and municipal services through the Internet and provides citizens and organizations the opportunity to receive these services electronically.
Monthly visits by users of the public services portal range between , and , For example, citizens are now able to get or exchange a driver's license through this portal.
Today Russian e-government elements are demanded in the spheres of e-governance, e-services e-health, e-education, e-library, etc. By the United Nations E-Government Survey E-Government for the People Russia became one of the 7 emerging leaders in e-government development, took 9th place in rating of e-government development in largest population countries, took 8th rank in Top e-participation leaders, after Norway, Sweden and Chile, Advancing 32 positions in the world rankings, the Russian Federation became the leader of e-government in Eastern Europe.
Evolution of ICT in the Russian Federation provided the raising of Russia in e-government development index to the 27 places. The main coordinating government body in matters of e-government is State e-Government Agency , which was established on June 4, The beginning of the state policy of the development of the information society was the adoption in of the Laws of Ukraine "On electronic documents and electronic document circulation", "On the national program of informatization", "On the electronic digital signature" and a number of state acts related to informatization.
Later, the Law of Ukraine "On the Basic Principles of the Information Society in Ukraine for ", "On Information Protection in Information and Telecommunication Systems" and some other legislative acts aimed at concretization and specification of these laws were adopted. This law emphasized the use of information and telecommunication technologies to improve public administration, relations between the state and citizens.
The next stage of e-government development began in after the adoption of the Agreement of parliamentary factions of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine in and the adoption of the Development Strategy "Ukraine - ", which was approved by Decree of the President of Ukraine dated January 12, No. The biggest achievement of the Ukrainian government in this area is a new public e-procurement system - ProZorro.
The system appeared to be so effective and innovative that it won a range of international rewards: the annual prize of the Open Government Awards , the World Procurement Award WPA at Public Sector Awards etc. Second, several notable online tools were launched by civil society. These have included the notably successful Prozorro electronic procurement platform which in its first 14 months of operation already contributed 1. The spending. E-petitions instruments were adopted by the Presidential Administration, by over local government authorities and more recently by the Cabinet of Ministers.
Smart City, open data, e-voting pilots and the growth of regional IT innovation centers such as the Impact Hub in Odesa, Space Hub in Dnipro and iHUB in Vinnytsia are important catalysts to local civic initiatives that focus on social innovation. Lastly, momentum is gaining ground, albeit slowly, in the introduction of e-services where several Ministries including Justice, Economic Development and Trade, Social Policy, Ecology, Regional Development, Building and Housing, Infrastructure and the State Fiscal Service have launched some of their first electronic services.
These newly launched services are facilitating more rapid and cost-efficient business and construction licensing, monitoring of illegal waste dumps and the automation of a one-stop-shop style customs clearance service". The current Clerk of the Privy Council — the head of the federal public service has made workplace renewal a pillar of overall public service renewal.
The key to workplace renewal is the adoption of collaborative networked tools. Other tools include GCconnex, a social networking tool, and GCforums, a discussion board system. The election of Barack Obama as President of the United States became associated with the effective use of Internet technologies during his campaign and in the implementation of his new administration in President Obama's memorandum centered around the idea of increasing transparency throughout various different federal departments and agencies.
By enabling public websites like recovery. In the U. With data from Data. Gov, the public can build apps , websites, and mashups. Although "Gov 2. Using data feeds available on DataSF. Three months later, San Francisco launched the first Twitter service, called SF, allowing residents to tweet, text, and send photos of potholes and other requests directly to the city. The software procurement process for something like this would normally have taken months, but in this case, it took less than three months.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see eGov disambiguation. Primary topics. Index of politics articles Politics by country Politics by subdivision Political economy Political history Political history of the world Political philosophy. Political systems. Academic disciplines. Political science political scientists.
International relations theory. Public administration. Bureaucracy street-level Adhocracy. Public policy doctrine Domestic and foreign policy Civil society Public interest. Organs of government. Separation of powers Legislature Executive Judiciary Election commission. Related topics.
Sovereignty Theories of political behavior Political psychology Biology and political orientation Political organisations Foreign electoral intervention. Main article: e-governance. Main article: Digital divide. Main article: E-democracy. Main article: Paperless office. Main article: e-participation.
Main article: E-Government in Pakistan. This section should include a summary of eGovernment in Europe. See Wikipedia:Summary style for information on how to incorporate it into this article's main text. June Further information: eGovernment in Europe. Main article: Open data in Canada. Fundamental of Development Administration.
Selangor: Scholar Press. Journal of Communication. Archived from the original on 22 March Retrieved 25 March Retrieved 10 April Retrieved 23 April Retrieved 16 September Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy. Computer Society of India. Archived from the original PDF on 7 November Retrieved 12 December South Asia LSE. Retrieved 27 June Government Information Quarterly. A generic architecture for e-Government and e-Democracy: requirements, design and security risk analysis. LAP Publishing. Journal of Computer Information Systems.
January 1, Citizen Relationship Management and E-Government. Jain Palvia; Sushil S. Sharma Retrieved 10 July The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation. Institute of Development Studies. Because the field grew to considerable size, both its contents and position with respect to other research fields and disciplines needs to be explained and discussed. While digital government is the most commonly used term in the US, electronic government is most common elsewhere.
In this paper we broadly cover the development irrespective of the term used. While these understandings are usually not undisputed, they still serve as ingredients of, if not homogenous, at least to a large extent shared culture of the field [King and Lyytinen, ]. Because e-Gov is new and, as we shall see, consists of a partially new combination of scientific disciplines and a vast area of practice, explaining the field is still difficult.
In this paper we define e-Gov in terms of current practice — who are e-Gov researchers and what are they researching? It is not necessarily intuitively apparent what a small village in France and the federal US government in Washington share in terms of process rationalization potential. The substantive domains in which government agencies work also differ considerably, from road construction to social welfare to schools to railroads to military defense.
While political science and public administration developed a range of conceptual approaches and empirical foundations about public enterprises, the thesis to be examined here is how the rise of information systems in government provides an opportunity for IS researchers and practitioners to extend their contributions to management and society. First, we discuss the outer boundaries by displaying various definitions and relating them to governance Section IV.
Second, we define the core by considering salient issues for practitioners which impact research Section V. We conclude with a discussion of e- Gov as a research field that is interesting both as a new application area for IS theories and methods and as a source of new insights Section VI. This literature concerns IT use within government, while the recent e-Gov literature more often concerns external use, such as services to the citizens [Ho, ].
While some earlier e-Gov computer issues, such as office automation, may not be highly relevant to research today, many issues are, for example decision making, service processes, and values. As we shall see in Section IV, all definitions of e-Gov go beyond services to the citizen to include organizational change and the role of government.
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Therefore, the two strands of literature need to be considered together as the basis of the e-Gov field. However, it is not limited to Internet use or publicly accessible systems for direct use by customers or citizens. For example, in the United States the then Vice President Gore led the National Performance Review, which placed a strong emphasis on the role of e-government in federal services [Gore, ; Salem, ]. Many conferences gather practitioners only, and invite researchers only as guest speakers2.
Other conferences invite academic papers but try to attract a mixed audience e. Yet other conferences, or sections thereof, focus on research knowledge exchange only. For over a decade the last two arrange annual conferences on several e-Gov themes. More recently new concepts appeared that draw on the popularity of new technology.
They appeared in several journals in neighboring fields such as e-commerce and government, often as special sections. They also appear in established journals in the social sciences. There is some discussion about the size of the field. A search by Norris and Lloyd  for e- Gov journal articles published between and found only 40 articles about e-government published or soon to be published in refereed journals. Another search by Andersen and Henriksen  found papers for the period of Both figures may be an underestimation of the size of the field, as many articles about e-Gov may not use that specific term political science articles often do not, for example.
We now present this literature, which is mainly of a practical nature. A huge number of e-Gov projects are undertaken in most countries around the globe. Many attempts are made to assess e-Gov development based on these projects. Analyses cover both geographical areas and various topics. There is a distinction in production, as most scientific papers cover developments in the industrialized world whereas the developing world is largely covered by research and development sponsored by major organizations such as the World Bank and UN.
In this subsection we therefore do not distinguish between them. The following discussion is designed only to indicate the scope of literature in the field. We do not claim to be complete or even to cover the most important publications. Surveys Several surveys cover e-Gov projects. These surveys can be found at several portals on the Internet. Many of these studies are qualitative detailed case studies of successful e-Government projects [Devadoss, Pan, and Huang, ; Ke and Wei, ; Golden, Hughes, and Scott, ]. Benchmarking A number of more or less recurrent benchmarking studies cover geographic areas such as the EU, the US, and worldwide e.
Critical Studies Critical studies focus on, e g, how and when to measure success e. Different studies use different measures of e-Government activity because they focus on different aspects. Examples include public sector use of the Internet and other digital devices to deliver services and information [West, ], governments providing information about services, as well as the ability to conduct government transactions, via the Internet [Accenture, ], and the application of information and communications technology ICT to transform internal and external relationships [UNDESA, a].
Handbook and Other Literature A body of handbook literature is based on cases and assessments. A growing scientific literature within IS is assessed in various ways by e. As this brief review shows, many outlets publish e-Government articles. What, then, is e- Government about? What is the content that motivates the many institutionalization efforts? Andersen and Henriksen  identify various themes found in the literature. Grant et al. Another way is to consider the calls for papers and proceedings from the multitude of conferences that exist today. Doing so we find not only a very wide range of topics but also many topics that are in other more established niches.
Using just one, but a representative, conference call as an example to illustrate papers for existing niches Table 1 , we find that, for example, number 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 are examples of such topics. Table 1. Frameworks and guidelines for e-Government and e-Governance 2. Methods and tools for e-government research 4. Participation, e-democracy and e-voting 5. One-stop government, electronic service delivery, mobile services 6.
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International and regional projects, case studies and best practice 7. Administrative process design and change, collaborative activities, legal interpretation 8. Trust and security: provisions and instruments 9. Knowledge management, public information, decision process support Interoperability and standards, semantic standardisation Change management and new organisational arrangements: public-private-partnerships, virtual teams Legal, societal and cultural aspects of e-Government International dimensions: cooperation, comparisons, networks Number 1, 2 and 4 may be such.
The list in Table 1 covers a large number of topics, ranging from technical e. Many of these topics already have their own journals and conferences in other disciplines, such as law and computer science. One may ask why e-Gov conferences should attract such papers. This question motivates inquiry into what triggers such a variety of topics being grouped together. This motivation comes from a number of sources. Around the turn of the millennium, governments across the globe set up definitions as basis for national strategies to achieve excellence based on use of Internet technology.
These definitions still remain, as they are implemented in official documents and government reform programs. Over the past few years, in many countries the rhetoric about improved democratic processes was played down a bit in practice and in definitions. Congress, ]. That set of definitions was complemented with various definitions crafted for specific more limited purposes, often by researchers.
Some of these definitions limit the field to make it more easily operationalized in some technical or reorganization project, or for research purposes. For example, 1. Better government definitions are typically being created by supranational organizations concerned with development, research, or international cooperation. Because in this section we are interested in the total realm of e-Gov, the outer boundaries of the field, we start by considering some of these.
What all recent definitions by major organizations share is that they 1. Three sample definitions illustrate these ideas. These technologies can serve a variety of different ends: better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with business and industry, citizen empowerment through access to information, or more efficient government management.
These definitions are about governance rather than government.