The Martin B-57 Night Intruders General Dynamics RB-57F
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As a result the first combat mission was only flown on February 19, The aircraft typically carried 9 x lb kg bombs in the bomb bay and 4 x lb kg bombs under the wings. The aircraft also continued to fly night interdiction missions against the Ho Chi Minh trail. Of the 94 BBs deployed to Southeast Asia, 51 were lost in combat and 7 other Canberras were lost to other causes. Only 9 were still flying by Poor results led to this system not being produced and the prototype was not deployed to the theatre.
Plans remained for the continuation of the BG program but post-conflict spending cuts forced the abandonment of these plans. The VNAF never officially took control of the aircraft, and, after accidents and other problems, including apparent claims by VNAF pilots that the B was beyond their physical capabilities, the program was terminated in April , and the aircraft were returned to their original USAF units. The Pakistan Air Force was one of the main users of the B and made use of it in two wars with India.
In the Second Kashmir War of Bs flew sorties, dropping over tons of bombs. Three Bs were lost in action, along with one RBF electronic intelligence aircraft. In order to avoid enemy fighter-bombers, the Bs operated from several different airbases. The B bombers would arrive over their targets in a stream at intervals of about fifteen minutes, which Pakistani authors believe, led to achieving a major disruption of the overall IAF effort.
On the very first night, 12 IAF runways were targeted and a total of bombs were dropped. As the war progressed, PAF Bs carried out many night missions. There was a higher attrition rate than in , with at least 5 Bs being put out of service by the end of the war. Data from Quest for Performance [ 31 ]. See also: B redesignation of A Lettris est un jeu de lettres gravitationnelles proche de Tetris. Il s'agit en 3 minutes de trouver le plus grand nombre de mots possibles de trois lettres et plus dans une grille de 16 lettres.
Il est aussi possible de jouer avec la grille de 25 cases. Participer au concours et enregistrer votre nom dans la liste de meilleurs joueurs! Changer la langue cible pour obtenir des traductions. En poursuivant votre navigation sur ce site, vous acceptez l'utilisation de ces cookies. En savoir plus. Cartridge engine starters in an RBB producing copious amounts of black smoke. BE with nose graft from Bomarc , for testing of the missile. Main article: Operation Shed Light. PAF Bs.
Martin B-57 Canberra
USAF B dropping lb kg bombs. Panorama of Ellington field's hangar , with one of the two WBFs inside. English Electric Canberra dark blue and B light blue operators [ 19 ]. In place of the curtailed BA, a more refined bomber variant, the BB , was developed. Having a more lengthy development time, this model incorporated the structural and system changes that had been recommended by WADC, which resulted in the aircraft being more adaptable than its BA predecessor.
The corresponding glazed bombing nose of the BA was deleted along with the starboard crew entrance to the cockpit. The BB introduced several other major changes. In terms of armaments, a total of four hardpoints attached to the outer wing panels were installed on this variant, capable of mounting external bombs and rockets. The BB was also furnished with a gun armament for strafing attacks. The first 90 aircraft to be produced were equipped with a total of eight 0. The redesigned bomb bay also enabled faster turnaround times on the ground. In addition, hydraulically -operated triangular air brakes were installed on the rear fuselage, which worked in addition to the existing 'finger'-type brakes installed in the wings; the new brakes gave the pilots a greater level of controllability, improving the accuracy of low-level bombing runs.
The substantial design changes between the BA and BB models resulted in delays to the overall program, as well as incurring substantial costs on the fixed-price contract.
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Gunston and Gilchrist stated of the consequences to the program: "This was clearly not the manufacturer's fault, but the money effectively ran out after of the planned aircraft order had been completed". In , in response to demands for a capable night interdiction aircraft for combat operations in the Vietnam theatre, a total of 16 BB Canberras were substantially rebuilt during a lengthy upgrade program. One of the aircraft was given to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA which fitted it with a new nose radome and used it to track hurricanes.
The aircraft was placed into limited production. Particularly contentious were the cockpit arrangement and the lack of guns, the Canberra having been designed as a high-speed, high altitude bomber rather than for close air support. The definitive BB , which introduced numerous improvements, made its first flight on 18 June The aircraft initially suffered from the same engine malfunctions as the RBAs and several were lost in high-speed low-level operations due to a faulty tailplane actuator which caused the aircraft to dive into the ground.
The USAF came to consider the BB as being inadequate for the night intruder role and thus Martin put all aircraft through an extensive avionics upgrade in response. The complete retirement was delayed, however, by the start of the Vietnam War. However, operational readiness was poor and the aircraft suffered from significant production delays because of engine problems.
Wright had subcontracted production of J65 engines to Buick , which resulted in slow deliveries and a tendency for engine oil to enter the bleed air system, filling the cockpit with smoke. The problems were ameliorated when Wright took over engine production in RBAs also suffered from a high accident rate caused in part by poor single-engine handling.
This resulted in the entire fleet spending much of on the ground. All equipment not absolutely essential for the daytime photography role was eliminated. The bomb bay door was removed and the area was skinned over.
Martin B Canberra - WikiVisually
The clear plexiglass nose cone was replaced by an opaque fiberglass cone, but with a small optical glass window cut for the viewfinder. The aircraft was referred to as RBA The weight reduction program shaved pounds off the weight of the RBA, and the ceiling was increased by feet. In , two RBDs were delivered to replace the A-types; one of them was shot down over China by a SA-2 Guideline missile, marking the very first successful operational engagement of surface-to-air missiles.
Two other RBAs were used by the Federal Aviation Administration to plan high-altitude airways for the upcoming jet passenger aircraft. Redesignated EBA , these aircraft were deployed with Defense Systems Evaluation Squadrons which played the role of aggressors to train the friendly air defense units in the art of electronic warfare.
Subsequent bomber variants were also modified to fulfill this role.
Although initially conducted by active duty Air Force units, the EB mission eventually migrated to selected units of the Air National Guard. Little is known about their use. The aircraft were retired due to structural fatigue and the advent of the U-2 and SR These same two aircraft have also been deployed alternately to Afghanistan for use as communications platforms that fly high over an area linking various communications devices on the battlefield and to other airborne assets, they were known as the Battlefield Airborne Communications Node system BACN. Although intended as a bomber and never before deployed by the USAF to a combat zone, the first Bs to be deployed to South Vietnam were not operated in an offensive role.
The need for additional reconnaissance assets, especially those capable of operating at night, led to the deployment of two RBE aircraft on 15 April Under project Patricia Lynn these aircraft provided infrared coverage using their Reconofax VI cameras. General Dynamics was chosen to modify the BE as it had extensive experience modifying Canberras with the RBD and RBF projects and turning the B into a high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft.
The forward nose section of the BEs were modified to house a KA-1 inch forward oblique camera and a low panoramic KA camera used on the Lockheed U Mounted inside the specially configured bomb bay door was a KA-1 vertical camera, a K split vertical day-night camera, an infrared scanner, and a KA-1 left oblique camera. The modified aircraft were redesignated RBE. The 2nd Air Division was desperate for tactical intelligence and on arrival the pilots that ferried in the RBEs were immediately assigned to the Division as combat crews and briefed on missions by Divisional intelligence officers on the reconnaissance flights they would make.
The Detachment flew nighttime reconnaissance missions to identify Viet Cong VC base camps, small arms factories, and storage and training areas. The sorties yielded results that heretofore only had been wished for. The nighttime imagery showed VC training and base camps; small, hidden factories and storage dumps that RF Voodoo crews had flown over during the day and had been unable to locate from the air. The existing RFs in could only photograph a few kilometers they had to fly very low per flight with their cameras. From then on, Patricia Lynn crews flew both night and day missions over South Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and areas of North Vietnam until , being some of the last USAF tactical aircraft to be withdrawn from the country.
The RBEs carried the call-sign "Moonglow". Some missions were flown at low-level over single targets, others consisted of 4—6 specific targets. The sampans were easy to spot with the "real time" IR if the crew could keep over the canal which was difficult in the darkness. The United States began Operation Steel Tiger over the Laos Panhandle and the DMZ on 3 April , to locate and destroy enemy forces and materiel being moved southward at night into South Vietnam, and to fly bomb damage assessment reconnaissance runs over targets attacked in the secret war the United States fought there.
Two RBEs were lost in combat operations. A sixth Patricia Lynn aircraft 55— joined the team in , as a replacement for the combat losses. This aircraft featured various modifications at different times in its career, particularly an extended nose probe and a probe on each wingtip. It was retired in the s. At least one BB was used to launch sounding rockets for high-altitude research, but it is unclear if the NASA was involved in this program. From , they were fitted with the RB-1A "Georgia Peach" all-weather bombing system, giving these machines a longer nose.
[3.0] The Martin B-57
Some of the Pakistani BBs were also modified to allow them to carry four external tanks, permitting them to conduct strikes deep inside India. Pakistani BBs performed strikes during the Indo-Pakistani War, flying sorties, with three lost in combat, but as mentioned destroying three IAF Canberras on the ground. They also saw combat in the brief Indo-Pakistan War, with reports of four or five lost in combat.
The Pakistani Bs remained in service well into the s, being the last of the breed flying in military colors. The BE featured four target winches in the bombbay and carried four sleeve targets, with two accommodated in a tube on each side of the lower rear fuselage. In practice, usually only two winches were fitted and two sleeve targets carried. The sleeve targets were not recovered after use, instead simply being cut loose.
The back-seater handled the target winches. The BE had a number of other minor changes:. Initial flight was on 16 May Once semi-active radar and heat-seeking AAMs became more normal armament, the Air Force had little need for a sleeve target tug, and in the early s 26 BEs were converted to the electronic warfare training role as "EBEs", taking up the role from the EBAs.
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Like the EBAs, the EBEs were loaded up with jamming gear and had the bigger airscoops under the engine intakes to provide more cooling air. They featured an extended nose, giving them a general appearance very much like the Pakistani BBs, but instead of radar, the nose carried forward oblique and panoramic film cameras. The RBEs also carried three cameras and a super-secret infrared scanner in the bombbay. The aircraft the Air Force actually wanted would take some time to develop, and so the service wanted to obtain an interim capability to fill the gap. In , the USAF awarded Martin a contract for development of a high-altitude reconnaissance version of the B, resulting in what was initially known as the "BD" but went into service as the "RBD".
The RBD featured a wing stretch from The bombbay was faired over and fuselage fuel tanks were eliminated. The wing provided integral fuel tankage instead -- there was plenty of room for it, after all. Since turning an aircraft with such long wings was likely to be a chore, a hydraulically actuated rudder and yaw damper were fitted. Initial flight of the first RBD was on 3 November , with 20 aircraft built.
They were the last new-build Bs. There were four different "groups" of RBDs, each with different mission configurations:. All BDs except Group A were fitted with an autopilot and folding rudder pedals, the last to allow a pilot to stretch his legs on a long mission. They were also used for high altitude tests, fallout sampling, and, under the designation of "WBD", weather reconnaissance -- though this appears to have been in part a cover for the fallout sampling mission.
These two machines were painted in Nationalist Chinese markings, with white on top and black on the bottom.
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The other machine remained in service until The RBDs were finally grounded in after one shed a wing and fell into a schoolyard -- fortunately, nobody was hurt. However, in nine retired RBDs were sent back to Martin for a wing rebuild, with these aircraft crammed with electronic countermeasures gear and put to work in test and training roles.
They were given the new designation of "EBD" and served into Ironically, the Air Force never actually developed the full-spec high-altitude reconnaissance platform that the service had wanted. As it turned out, the U-2 would prove outstandingly successful; the Air Force dropped their own plans and adopted it as well, in fact eventually taking over all U-2 operations from the CIA.
However, the Air Force did not give up on the use of the B as a high-altitude reconnaissance platform, even when the wing spar problems showed the writing was clearly on the wall for the RBD. In , the Air Force awarded General Dynamics a contract to come up with a bigger and better Bbased reconnaissance platform. The result was the "RBF", with a super-stretched wing with a span of The TF33 was a turbofan derivative of the J57 and provided improved fuel economy and thrust, with The J60s had no starter system; they simply windmilled in the airflow and were then ignited.
The RBF could reach at least 19, meters 65, feet. The new wing featured three spars -- nobody wanted a repeat of the BD wing problems -- and a noticeable anhedral droop. There were no flaps, since getting the thing off the runway wasn't a problem; the wings only featured ailerons with trim tabs, and large spoilers in front of the ailerons to allow the aircraft to get back down on the ground. The wing featured four stores stations, though two of these were generally used for the J60 turbojets. All the fuel tankage was in the wing, with a total capacity of 15, liters 3, US gallons , leaving the fuselage free for stores.
The tailfin was enlarged to improve yaw and roll stability, and many aircraft systems were modified for the cold and thin air of high-altitude flight. Reconnaissance systems were installed where the bombbay had been, and a new long nose was fitted for reconnaissance gear. The pilot was provided with an autopilot for long-range missions.
The end result had something of an clumsy appearance and only a general resemblance to the original Canberra. Initial flight of the first RBF was on 23 June , with 21 built. They were in principle "upgrades" of 17 BBs and 4 RBDs, but in reality the assemblies from the original aircraft were a minority percentage of the machine -- it might be more accurate to think of the RBFs as new-build aircraft, using some cannibalized assemblies. However, if they'd been called new-build aircraft, the Air Force would have had to pay royalties to EE.
Again, this seems to have been a cover for the fallout sampling mission. In WBF configuration, payload included four air samplers that used paper filters to pick up radioactive fallout traces; four gas samplers; three radiation meters; an ion chamber on a wing pylon; a cosmic-ray detector; a panoramic film camera; and data and voice tape recorders.
One was lost over the Black Sea on 14 December for unknown reasons. The best guess is that there was an oxygen system fault and the aircrew had suffocated, since the machine simply floated slowly out of the sky until it crashed, as if nobody was in control. Two RBFs were sent to Pakistan in They were originally sent to monitor Chinese nuclear tests and were operated by American pilots. One came back home but the other remained to perform surveillance during the Indo-Pakistan War.
The B became a significant component of US combat assets thrown into the war. On 2 and 4 August , there were clashes between US Navy destroyers and North Vietnamese torpedo boats, leading to reprisal airstrikes and general escalation of US actions in the war. The circumstances in this incident remain a bit murky and the "Gulf of Tonkin Incident" has been seen as at least partly a pretext for the Johnson Administration to commit US forces directly to the fighting.